ExoMars Mission lead: European Space Agency (ESA) and the Space Agency of the Russian Federation, the Federal space Agency. The project consists of two stages. The first stage included the launch of the orbital Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the lander Entry, Descent and landing demonstrator Module (EDM), known as the list. they were taken into space from the Baikonur cosmodrome on 14 March 2016. and sent to Mars together. In turn, the second stage would rely on to launch in 2020 lander with Rover to study egzobiologicznych and geochemical on the surface of Mars.
on the morning of Thursday (hours 9:00) ESA has planned a press-conference at which will make conducted maneuvers.
the Principal scientific objectives the mission: to search for possible traces of life on Mars (current or former, name of the mission is establishing for this task), a study of the distribution of water at different depths, surface exploration and identify potential threats to future manned missions, conducted under the ground surface, to better understand the evolution of Mars.
technological Goals and this: check the high landing platform on Mars, testing the use of solar energy on the planet’s surface, drilling in the Martian soil at a depth of 2 meters, testing solutions for generations of Martian Rovers.
within the framework of the ExoMars mission use elements built in Poland. The Space Research Centre PAN, Warsaw was designed and built power supply for camera, Cassis, and batteries mounted it on behalf of the Institute of the Polish company Creotech Instruments S. A., in turn, on Board of the lander has installed infrared sensors manufactured by Vigo System S. A. ” from Ożarów Mazowiecki. These detectors ESA used to create radiometrów ICOTOM in the system COMARS+, designed for monitoring of the outer shell of the lifeboat.
on Sunday, three days before the scheduled landing, Schiaparelli separated from the probe Trace Gas Orbiter. 12 hours after disconnecting the oxygen sensor to adjust its course to avoid entering the atmosphere and to be in orbit around Mars. In turn, Schiaparelli was still in sleep mode to reduce energy consumption. Wakes up only for a short time before entering the atmosphere of Mars, which will occur at the height of 122,5 km and at a speed of about 21 thousand km/h.
Wednesday, October 19, will begin planting. First, Schiaparelli will be wytracać speed using the aerodynamic protective heat. At an altitude of 11 km, at a speed of 1650 km/h, it opens the parachute, which should reduce speed to 250 km/h Then the machine rejects the front cover and include a Doppler radar altimeter and a speed meter to determine its position and velocity relative to Mars.
At an altitude of about 1 km, where the deviation of the rear heat shield and parachute, will be launched with three engines on liquid fuel (using hydrazyny), to reduce the speed to less than 7 km/h At a height of 2 meters above the surface the motors are disabled and the device will fall to the Martian soil. The drop has a lock from a special structure at the bottom of the lander. The whole procedure from entry to arrival is less than six minutes.
As the landing site was selected plains of Meridiani Temporale, close to the position where in 2004 he landed the American Mars Rover Opportunity. In this area there are old layers hematytów (iron oxides), which in the case of the Earth arise in an environment containing liquid water. Furthermore, it is known that this area is safe for landing.
– the Signal from the lander will be delivered to the Ground through the Orbiter Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). This will help also other sensors currently circulating around Mars, European Mars Express and U.S. Mars Reconnaissaince Orbiter. ESA expects to receive about 100 megabits of data from the lander, including 50 megabit scientific data.
Schiaparelli first to test the process of landing, but also will be used scientifically. Instruments, scientific they must work for two to four days after planting.
DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment, and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) will be using several sensors to explore the environment, to measure wind speed, direction, humidity, pressure, temperature, transparency of the atmosphere, the electric field in the atmosphere. In turn, AMELIA will collect data during atmospheric entry and landing. A set of tools COMARS+ is used to control heat on the back cover Schiaparelliego when it flew through the atmosphere. In addition, on surface lander, which will focus zenitowi, a small set of laser reflectors, called INRRI, which will serve as the target for the orbital laser probes to search the boat.
in turn, the orbital probe will be primarily research, content and distribution of methane and other trace gases in the Martian atmosphere such as water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, acetylene. Will also track their variability at different times of the year.
lander Schiaparelli has a weight of 577 pounds. The other half is for the correct platform of the lander, 46 kg is fuel, the rest is, in particular, heat shields, allowing it to survive temperatures that during flight through the atmosphere can reach 1750 degrees Celsius. The external size is 2.4 meters width and 1.8 meters in height, in turn, is hidden inside the platform of the lander measures 1.7 meters.
the First years of the project ExoMars was not easy, changes also continued in a concept that will fly to Mars. On this kind of mission started to think in 2001 under the project Aurora. Originally, the project was approved by ESA in 2005. Initially, the launch was to take place in 2011 from Kourou in French Guiana with the help of the carrier rocket ” Soyuz-2b/Frigates, landing in 2013. However, due to the failure of the American probe, Mars Global Surveyor and uncertainty in the possibility of another American probe orbiting Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to transmit a signal to Earth in 2006, it was agreed that the ExoMars project also included an extra satellite, and will be in 2013, Ariane 5.
but Later abandoned this idea and ESA signed an agreement with Roskosmosem, and the planned launch vehicle changed to the Russian proton. However, this was not the end of the adventure, because very soon it was established cooperation with NASA, called the Mars Exploration Joint Initiative and divided the project into a probe of orbital and chose two that had to endure American Atlas V rocket, and the method of planting would be similar to the American solution of the mission Mars Science Laboratory.
nevertheless, in 2012. NASA abandoned the ExoMars project, and again sent to Russia (the carrier rocket proton-M), and Roscosmos has been a full partner of the project. In September 2015 delayed start due to a faulty sensor in the drive system of the boat Schiaparelli. In turn, in January 2016. it was announced that for financial reasons the second phase of the mission will have to be shifted and in the end it was decided for 2020.
in the end the first mission managed to launch into space March 14, 2016. from Baikonur with a proton rocket.
After all these changes are currently in the first phase of the mission, ESA is responsible for the probe’s orbital Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the lander Schiaparelli, while the Federal space Agency for launch vehicle and two of the scientific instruments on Board TGO. In the second stage, the Russian space Agency will also provide a launch from Earth using rockets “proton”, prepare the machine and a few scientific instruments for the Mars Rover, in turn, ESA will develop an all-terrain vehicle and part of its scientific instruments.
the Value of the mission of the European Space Agency will be 1.3 billion euros.