Physics was awarded for “the theoretical discovery of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”.
Three awarded scientists working in American colleges and universities David J. Thouless, who received half of the awards, at the University of Washington in Seattle, F. Duncan M. Haldane Princeton University, and J. Michael Kosterlitz Brown University in Providence.
read MORE ABOUT the NOBEL prize >>>
what’s New: electronics, which we don’t know
they Opened the door to an unknown world where matter takes the unusual position – it is told in the message of the Nobel Committee for the press.
As specified, winners have helped the mathematical methods to study these non-ordinary States and phases of matter. Thanks to their pioneering work, now we are on the way and absolutely new for us ezgotycznych States of matter. A lot of people hopes for the future application of these studies in materiałoznawstiwe and electronics, said.
Using advanced mathematical methods of the winners this year were analyzed unusual States of matter – superconductors conducting electrical current without resistance, superciecze deprived of the viscosity of thin magnetic layers.
“Amazing and unique, because it is very difficult to understand,”
an Unusual state of matter in this case – is not a scientific term, but a way of expressing our awe, unusual, hard to understand, ” said the jury member, the Torso Hans Hannson.
As he said, this feeling is changing. For example, was once considered a very specific electricity – currently it is not reflected.
Topology-for example, bakery products
Topology is a branch of mathematics dealing with the study of ownership that does not change even after significant zdeformowaniu objects such as geometric figures, bodies and objects with a large number of dimensions.
Torso Hans Hannson explaining the concept of topology, said that in this branch of mathematics play a great role niezmienniki (eng. invariants) – the qualities or properties that do not change continuously. He explained this with the example of bread: its taste, tenderness may change, however, for example, a hole in the pastry approach topologicznym can be determined only using integers – and so easy, there are no holes, a bagel and two pretzels. In that time, he added, you can’t imagine the “half” holes.
Topology describes the characteristics that do not change continuously, but their change is expressed through the number.
he Stressed that the Nobel prize shows a huge degree of interaction between mathematics and physics.
Winners announced the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from among the candidates recommended working at the Academy, the Nobel Committee for physics. Prize is eight million Swedish kroner, which corresponds to approximately 3.5 million rubles. Winners receive medals and diplomas.