This is the first landing on Mars since 2012, when she arrived, the mission of the American space Agency NASA of the Curiosity Rover.
Current expedition was prepared by the European Space Agency ESA, its share in the Russian space Agency.
Sample Schiaparelli fall to the Red Planet on Wednesday 19 October “OK”. 16:48 of our time. Landing – from the moment of entry into marsjańską atmosphere for landing – will take hardly less than 6 minutes. At this time, will be commissioned only for themselves. If he makes a mistake, people will not be able to help him. From the Ground it was separated by 175 million km – the radio signal overcomes the distance in 9 minutes, 45 seconds.
on your feet
So engineers at the European Space Agency (ESA four years Russia is its member) made planned and programmed.
Sunday 577-pound Schiaparelli was separated from the 3.7-ton ship, a mother and a sharp flight balistycznym sped toward the red Planet. Still an hour before entering the atmosphere of Mars will be in sleep mode to save power.
in accordance with the plan of waking up on Sunday approx. at 15:40. Then the onboard computer will bring to life the landing sequence and to prepare all the instruments aboard – navigation, telecommunication, camera, sensors, responsible for monitoring the position of the vessel, the parachute and the engine.
Ok. 121 km above the surface of the red Planet Schiaparelli gets in its rare atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is less than one-hundredth the pressure of earth). Will then be driven at a speed of about 21 thousand km/h over the next 3-4 minutes aerodynamically braking. It the bottom cover until warmed to a white heat, squeezing ourselves the atmosphere and slow burn.
Despite the fact that the Martian atmosphere is a hundred times rarer than the earth, it is friction sharply to return to this subject Schiaparellego. At the height of 11 km above the surface the machine will slow down to a speed of 1.7 thousand km/h Then, too, in less than a second (!) unfold the parachute. After 40 h, when stabiliziruemost rozkołysany the opening of the dome flying, Schiaparelli rejects lower nadpaloną portion of the housing, the aerodynamic. Presents Doppler radar begins to measure the speed and altitude of the lander.
a Minute later, at an altitude of approx. 3 km, Schiaparelli launches the camera. Will make 15 black-and-white photographs of the airfields on which the plains of Meridiani Temporale (or rather, part of an area of a total of 1.5 thousand people. HP kW.) located slightly beneath the Martian equator. ESA by the way, the area is recognized and obfotografowany, because for many years over the red Planet and its satellite Mars Express.
the Camera will stop off at a height of approx 1.5 km and 300 m below Schiaparelli once I jettisoned the parachute and the top cover. The apparatus is then lowered at a speed of 250 km/h a Second later, it activates the nine engines, limiting working hydrazyną.
Barely 2 m above the surface of the red Planet Schiaparelli will be hanging in the stillness. Then he switched off the engines and just falls into the Martian soil. Before a hard landing will protect him built like a honeycomb crumple zone. The feet of the lander will allow him means to become on uneven surfaces with slopes up to 12.5 degrees and is covered with stones up to 40 cm
Mother will live longer
Schiaparelli will survive on Mars for a few days until he has enough amperage in the battery. It will be during this time were measured, and weather conditions at the landing site.
however, its main task is… landing experience. ESA wants to try a new method of exact embedding lądowników used in 2020, when I shall send on the Red Planet, the Rover.
Schiaparelli, therefore, has the same job as belonging to the NASA Pathfinder, which fell on Mars in summer 1997. Fell literally after disconnecting his parachute buffered falling around him tightly a set of airbags. NASA then used this method when future Mars missions.
Your task is also the mother ship of the mission ExoMars. Monday included a brake motor (worked for 1 min 46 sec), which was rescued from a very hard blow to the Red Planet. Wednesday, 15:05 then on again braking – this time its engines should work exactly 139 minutes. Due to the fact that successfully went into orbit around Mars.
over the next five years from a height of several hundred kilometers will be explored that on Mars there was life exists. To perform accurate shots its surface, and check that the Martian soil is water, and check that in the atmosphere there is methane.
Methane in the atmosphere of the red Planet with gas more than on Earth – its concentration there is nearly 10 parts per billion. But since it is decomposed for approx. 400 years, scientists believe that there must be some mechanism to replenish it. It is also known that in some places of methane more than others, and sometimes it appears suddenly, as if Mars was doing a deep breath. Maybe that’s why the source of methane on the fourth planet of the Solar System are the anaerobic microorganisms?
Around to the goal
ExoMars Mission is a project of the European-Russian. Russian helped her ascension into orbit, and “gave her a kick” in the direction of the red Planet. On 15 March the ship was made from Baikonur rocket “proton”. This is a real kolubryna at the start weighed more than 4 thousand. tons. In the 60-ies. Soviet engineers designed it to transport Intercontinental ballistic missiles. Since the 70-ies. however the purposes of scientific research.
Despite the fact that the ExoMars mission is now “OK”. 175 million km from Earth, it is in the way to the goal beat to 496 million kilometers. Space travel, does not pass for straight. Sometimes the probe repeatedly to and fro the Earth and other celestial bodies, which gives her a speed and to save fuel. Well, at the same time revolve of course around the Sun. Because in space everything revolves.
1.3 billion euros should be worth two European-Russian ExoMars missions – present and that which we will send in 2020.
Russia also makes a presence in ESA
In the development of research tools the mission participated in the Space Research Centre PAN, Warsaw, and the Polish company Creotech Instruments SA and VIGO System SA. CBK, in collaboration with Creotechem released a camera mounted on the ship-mother. Company VIGO created infrared sensors, which the French and the Germans installed the monitoring system cover the boat. Responsibility to ESA for Schiaparellego French engineer Thierry Blancquaert wanted to involve the cooperation of the Polish manufacturer of parachutes. This is not, however, was interested.
the Key mission on the Red Planet
- 1964: the First probe Mariner 4 flies by and sends photographs
- 1971: Mariner 9 – first Mars satellite
- 1976. The first successful landing of Viking twins samples
- 1997: On the planet’s surface settles Mars Pathfinder small Rover Sojourner, and in orbit comes Global Surveyor
- 2001: Mars Odyssey orbiter appears
- 2003: the New satellite becomes Mars Express.
- 2004: Landing on the Mars Rovers Spirit and Opportunity
- 2005: Over starts to circulate Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
- 2007: At the extreme North of the earth Phoenix
- 2012 In the Gale crater Curiosity Rover settles